Historical Figures: Charles
Charles Edward Louis Philip
Casimir Stuart, 'Bonnie Prince Charlie' (1720-1788) Son of uncrowned
Stuart King James III of Britain and grandson of the last crowned Stuart
king - James II, who had ruled from 1685-88.
In July 1745 Charles landed in Scotland
and raised his standard at Glenfinnan on 19 August. With his small but dedicated
army of Highlanders, the '45 Jacobite rebellion had begun. By September he
occupied Edinburgh. In November he crossed into England but no English rose
for his Jacobite cause and backing from France still did not materialise.
Faced with a Government army five times larger, he withdrew back to Scotland.
Charles held his last war
council in the Drummond Arms Hotel, Crieff.
Check out Crieff
on this site or on
On 16th April 1746 he was
finally defeated at Culloden by the Duke of Cumberland. After 5 months of
evading capture Charles escaped to France. Charles tried for years to interest
various European powers in assisting his cause, but to no avail and in 1788
he finally died having spent almost all his life in exile.
The '45 wasn't a war between
Scotland and England and it wasn't a religious war, it was a final putting
to rest of the ideals of Stuart Monarchy which had been rejected by the majority
of both Scots and English half a century earlier. There were more Scots fighting
on the Government side at Culloden than on the Jacobite. Even though many
(most?) Highlanders hadn't backed his cause, Highland culture, language and
dress was supressed for decades to come.